Out, damned spot! Out, you say! If hyperpigmentation is causing you to channel your Shakespearian side, know you鈥檙e not alone. From porcelain skin to deep tones, unwanted spots affect everyone. Before you turn to concealing beauty products to create a flawless face, it鈥檚 important to understand the causes behind these dark marks, how to prevent them from popping up, and expert ways to treat them for any skin tone.

fair

It鈥檚 all about protecting your sensitive skin from those savage UV rays. The lack of melanin, or pigment, in pale tones makes you even more susceptible to showing signs of sun exposure in the form of hyperpigmentation. 鈥淢elanin can help prevent ultraviolet damage,鈥 says San Francisco-based dermatologist William Kwan. 鈥淪un damage appears as red or brown marks on fair skin.鈥 Beyond being diligent about daily SPF application, Kwan recommends using laser treatments and brightening skincare products to balance out the discoloration. 鈥淭ypically, red spots can be improved with a vascular laser or an intense pulsed light treatment,鈥 Kwan explains. 鈥淟ook for products that contain skin brighteners like soy and alpha arbutin to work on the brown areas.鈥

light

Light skin is just slightly warmer than fair, so keep the same general tips in mind. 鈥淓ven though there is more pigment, they鈥檙e still likely to get sun damage and brown spots, also known as age and liver spots,鈥 says Kwan. Use the same topicals, but be a bit more cautious with any lightening and brightening products. 鈥淪ince light-skinned people are naturally darker than fair-skinned people, they should be aware that using lightening or brightening products over the entire face could make the face lighter than the rest of the body,鈥 he says.

medium

鈥淢edium complexions are more likely to develop hyperpigmentation in the form of irregular brown discoloration, but it can be addressed with Fraxel or PicoWay laser treatments,鈥 Kwan tells us. 鈥淭hey can be subjected to red spots too, but since it鈥檚 a darker skin tone, it may not be as obvious.鈥 Melasma, which is a condition that leaves behind discolored patches on the skin, can also affect medium tones. 鈥淚t鈥檚 very difficult to prevent melasma, but avoiding too much sun and tanning can certainly reduce the chances of the problem occurring,鈥 says Kwan.

olive

The deeper your skin is, the easier it is for you to tan rather than burn, meaning those with olive coloring bronze easily 鈥 but are also extra susceptible to discoloration and melasma. 鈥淭he higher number of melanocytes, which are cells that control pigment, the more sensitive a skin type is to hyperpigmentation,鈥 explains Kwan. 鈥淲hen olive skin is tanned, the melanocytes are activated and can lead to spots in the exposed areas.鈥 Gentle remedies are key since an overly harsh or abrasive cure could make the affected areas appear darker. 鈥淚 recommend the Clear聽+ Brilliant laser to treat olive complexions because there鈥檚 very little downtime and the laser is gentle and safe,鈥 he says.

deep

Deep skin typically deals with hyperpigmentation that鈥檚 unrelated to sun exposure, since your dark color protects you from it. 鈥淚nstead of sun-related hyperpigmentation, these individuals get spots related to acne, melasma, and burns or rashes,鈥 Kwan says. 鈥淒ark-complected people should be just as careful of sun exposure to prevent the dark spots from getting darker and harder to treat.鈥 Turning to lasers for treatment isn鈥檛 ideal for deep tones because the skin is extra sensitive, so Kwan recommends a chemical peel to balance out discoloration instead.

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